Surveying Books 1800s

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Prepared by:   Francois "Bud" Uzes


One important element in compiling a list of surveying books used in the United States is determining when surveying was first practiced in the colonies. The beginning of the 17th century corresponds with the first lasting settlement by the English in Virginia. That event took place in 1607 and was followed by the landing of the Mayflower in 1620 whereupon the colony of Plymouth was founded. Although the question of when surveying began remains unanswered, further insight is provided in a statement appearing in John Love's Geodaesia: or, The Art of Surveying and Measuring of Land Made Easie. (1688):

- - - and if you ask, why I write a Book of this nature, since we have so many very good ones already in our own Language? I answer, because I cannot find in those Books, many things, of great consequence, to be understood by the Surveyor. I have seen Young men in America, often nonplus'd so, that their Books would not help them forward, particularly in Carolina, about Laying out Lands, when a certain quantity of Acres has been given to be laid out five or six times as broad as long. This I know is to be laught at by a Mathematician; yet to such as have no more of this Learning, than to know how to Measure a Field, it seems a Difficult Question: And to what Book already Printed of Surveying shall they repair to, to be resolved?

While the information is meager it seems certain that surveying was being practiced in the American colonies during the 17th century. Lacking evidence of earlier work it was decided to begin the present compilation with the year 1600.

Surveying book entries dated before 1800 include all English-language works that were either used or were susceptible to having been used in America. Those after 1800 are limited to ones published in the United States with the exception of a few specialty books for which no local counterpart was then available. This compilation contains instructional or "how-to" books and does not include such items as manufacturer's catalogs, etc. The inclusion of government surveying manuals is limited to individually published works having either widespread application or particular significance.

1800 to 1899

Cook, David, Cook's American Arithmetic; Being a System of Decimal Arithmetic; Comporting with the Federal Currency of the United States of America. To Which is Annexed, by Way of Second Part, The American Surveyor. A Draught of Instruments, Adapted to Carry the Above into Effect. The Work is Rendered Easy, and may be of Great Use to the Citizens of the United States, (New Haven, 1800), 116 pages and 3 plates.

Eaton, Amos, Art Without Science, or Mensuration, Surveying and Engineering, Divested of the Speculative Principles and Technical Language of Mathematics, (c. 1800), 12 pages. In 1830 this work was enlarged and republished with 96 pages. At that time the first work was described although no known copy has been located.

Weber, Samuel, Mathematics, Compiled from the Best Authors and Intended to be the Text-Book of the Course of Private Lectures on These Sciences in the University of Cambridge, in Two Volumes, (Boston, 1801), Vol. 1 contains 426 pages and Volume II contains 610 pages. The surveying portion, including heights and distances, comprises pages 169 through 270 in Volume II. The instruments described include the plane table, theodolite, cross, circumferentor, and smaller items.

Fenwick, Thomas, A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on Subterraneous surveying, and the Magnetic Variation of the Needle, (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1804), 207 pages and 7 folding plates. This was the primary work on mine surveying for which no counterpart existed in America. Later editions were published in 1822 and 1861.

Flint, Abel, A System of Geometry and Trigonometry; together with a Treatise on Surveying, (Hanford, 1804), viii, 82, 84, 4 folding plates. Editions of Flint's Surveying were published for a half century beginning in 1804. It was a widely used text and reference book. A testimonial by two noted surveyors states: "The Surveyor who shall own this will not be under the necessity of purchasing Gibson which is a more expensive work." Abraham Lincoln reportedly studied from texts by Gibson and Flint.

Conway, Miles, Geodaesia, or a Treatise of Practical Surveying Wherein Several Things That are Useful and Necessary in that Art are Considered and Explained, Particularly, Several Very Concise Methods for Determining the Area of Surveys by Calculation in Different Forms, and Several Different Tables Adapted for that Purpose. Made for the Use of Western Surveyors in Particular, or may be Useful to Others. (Lexington, KY, 1807), 60 pages.

Gummere, John, A Treatise on Surveying, containing the Theory and Practice to which is prefixed, a Perspicuous System of Plane Trigonometry, (Philadelphia, 1814), 202 pages of text and 152 pages of tables, with 8 folding plates. Gummere's Surveying was one of the major surveying texts of the 19th century and revised editions were published for over a century. The book focused on giving examples of surveying problems. The major angle-measuring instrument of the pre-1850 era was the English theodolite and its operation is described in the text.

Fairlamb, Jonas Preston, A New and Concise Method of Completely Obviating the Difficulty Occasioned in Surveying by Local Attractions of the Magnetic Needle . . ., (Wilmington, 1818), 15 pages.

Hanna, James, The American Instructor: or, Every One of His Own Teacher: Comprising . . . Spelling, Reading . . . Arithmetic, Surveying, Carpenters' Measurement, Bookkeeping, by Double Entry, (Trenton, 1818), 304 pages.

Messinger, J.A., A Manual or Handbook Intended for convenience in Practical Surveying, (1821), 44 pages plus illustrations..

Farrar, John, An Elementary Treatise on the Application of Trigonometry to Orthographic and Stereographic Projection, Dialling, Mensuration of Heights and Distances, Navigation, Nautical Astronomy, Surveying and Levelling, (Cambridge, New England, 1822), 153 pages of text plus 71 pages of tables, 9 plates. This work was designed for the use of the students of the University at Cambridge, New England. Subsequent editions continue to the 4th in 1840.

Ville, S.W. Von, Del Bauer als Landmesser, oder die Practische Feldmesskunst, (Reading, PA, 1824), 154 pages and 6 plates on 2 fold-out leaves. This is the only known American surveying book printed in the German language.

Hale, James, Elements of Geometry & Trigonometry, with an Easy and Concise System of Land Surveying, (Bellows Falls, VT, 1829), 70 pages of text plus 45 pages of tables. This simplified pocket-sized book includes descriptions of the circumferentor and chain.

Davies, Charles, Elements of Surveying, (New York, 1830), 147 pages of text plus 153 pages of tables and 9 folding plates. This was the first of a series of Davies' books on surveying and was intended for use of the students at West Point. Beginning in 1835 the content was modified for use outside the academy. Later editions had different titles and expanded sections including navigation. Davies Surveying dominated the market during the mid-19th century and was a major contribution to the development of surveying within the United States. Despite being periodically updated it never really kept pace with the advancing technology and doesn't include material on the commonly-used surveyors transit until the 1883 version published by J. Van Amringe. Nonetheless it was very popular and provided guidance for a large number of surveyors during the mid-19th-century. The various titles with the beginning years are: Elements of Surveying (1830), Elements of Surveying and Navigation (1841), Elements of Surveying and Levelling [sic] (1870), and Elements of Surveying and Leveling (1883).

Day, Jeremiah, The Mathematical Principles of Navigation and Surveying, with the Mensuration of Heights and Distances: Being the Fourth Part of A Course of Mathematics, Adapted to the Method of Instruction in the American Colleges. (New Haven, 1831, 1839), 119 pages and 3 folding plates. This work stresses the principles of surveying rather than delving into the details that are necessary for the practical surveyor.

Ryan, James, A Treatise on the Art of Measuring Containing All That is Useful in Bonnycastle, Hutton, Hawney, Ingram and Several Other Modern Works on Mensuration: To which are added Trigonometry, with Its Application to Heights and Distances: Surveying: Gauging: and also the Most Important Problems in Mechanics. (New York, 1831), 344 pages. James Ryan was earlier involved in a surveying text when in 1812 he revised Gibson's Surveying. This work has 53 pages specifically devoted to surveying plus chapters on geometry, trigonometry and other mathematical subjects.

Hutton, Charles, Course of Mathematics for the Use of Academies as Well as Private Tuition, in Two Volumes, the Fifth American from the Ninth London Edition with Many Corrections and Improvements, by Olinthus Gregory, with the Additions of Robert Adrain, the Whole Corrected and Improved, Volume I, (New York, 1831).  This work covers a multitude of mathematical subjects, including a 29-page section on surveying.

Bourne, A., The Surveyor's Pocket-Book, Containing Brief Statements of Mathematical Principles, and Useful Results in Mechanical Philosophy, Compiled from Various Sources, and Designed Principally as a Book of Reference for Surveyors and Civil Engineers, (Chillicothe, Ohio, 1834), 147 pages of which 15 pages are particularly about surveying and 40 are mathematics. One noteworthy attribute is that this is the first surveying text to include material of the U.S. public land surveys, including certain changes in 1833 in the procedures for conducting that type of work. Alexander Bourne was a noted Ohio mapmaker and surveyor.

Dunham, Thomas, A New Method of Teaching Navigation and Surveying, Not Before Published, (New Bedford, MA, 1834), 18 pages.

Peirce, Benjamin, An Elementary Treatise on Plane Trigonometry, with its Applications to Heights and Distances, Navigation, and Surveying, (Cambridge and Boston, 1835), 90 pages and 1 folding plate. This book presents mathematical elements with little practical surveying. Peirce was Superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey from 1867 to 1874. In 1840 he greatly expanded this work to include treatment of spherical trigonometry and explanations of applications to Bowditch's Navigator and Nautical Almanac.

Simms, Frederick W., A Treatise on the Principal Mathematical Instruments Employed in Surveying, Levelling and Astronomy, revised, with additions, (Baltimore, 1836), 115 pages. This work has little instructional material but does provide descriptions of the instruments in use.

Pomeroy, Ralph W., The Engineer's Practical Elements, containing Surveying, Draughting, Geodesic Operations, Mensuration, Explanation and Employment of Instruments, &c., on the Basis of Lacroix, (Philadelphia, 1836).  This is a pocket-sized work that emphasizes French surveying techniques and map preparation.  The content includes instructions on how to perform numerous field tasks together with illustrations of the various instruments.

Alsop, Samuel, A Complete Key to Gummere's Surveying (Philadelphia, 1837), 84 pages plus 2 folding plates. This work contains worked examples to 19 problems found in Gummere's Surveying.

Simms, Frederick W., A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Levelling, (Baltimore, 1837), 121 pages of text, 32 pages of tables and 4 plates. This is the American edition of a work by an English author and exhibits that influence. It was reprinted several times including a 5th edition in 1870.

Mifflin, Samuel W.., Methods of Location or Modes of Describing and Adjusting Railway Curves and Tangents as Practised by the Engineers of Pennsylvania, (Philadelphia, 1837), 41 pages.  This is the earliest known book to mention the American surveyor's transit and include instructions for its use.

Millington, John, Elements of Civil Engineering, (Philadelphia, 1839), 725+ pages with 8 folding plates. This book devotes 47 pages to land surveying along with the various elements of civil engineering..

Eaton, Amos, Prodromus of a Practical Treatise on the Mathematical Arts: Containing Directions for Surveying and Engineering, (Troy, NY, 1838), 191 pages. There was also an 1848 edition.

Roberts, William, A Specification and Treatise on Monumental Surveying, (Troy, 1839), 53 pages.

Stevenson, David, A Treatise on the Application of Marine Surveying & Hydrometry to the Practice of Civil Engineering, (Edinburgh & London, 1842), 173 pages and 13 plates. This is a leading work on the subject of hydrographic surveying and includes treatment of tide measuring, triangulation, soundings, etc.

McLallen, Robert L, A New and Interesting Arithmetic, in Which is Explained the Method that Zerah Colburn Must Have Pursued in Answering the Very Difficult Questions Proposed to Him. . . To Which is Added, The Surveyor's Art - Abridged, (North Adams, MA, 1844), 212 pages.

O'Shaughnessy, P.A., A Treatise on Surveying and Civil Engineering, Wherein Everything That is Useful and Curious is Demonstrated from its First Principles, (New York, 1848), 98 pages.

Whitlock, Rev. George Clinton, Elements of Geometry, Theoretical and Practical: Containing a Full Explanation of the Construction and Use of Tables, and A New System of Surveying (New York, 1849), 324 pages. This work mostly treats mathematics but does minimally include material on use of the compass, theodolite, level, cross and chain.

Borden, Simeon, A System of Useful Formulae Adapted to the Practical Operations of Locating and Constructing Railroads, (Boston, 1851), 188 pages.

Robinson, Horatio N., A Treatise on Surveying and Navigation: Uniting the Theoretical, Practical and Educational Features of these Subjects, (Cincinnati, 1852), 230 pages of text and 101 pages of tables. This is a basic university textbook and gives general treatment of the subject. It revised up to a 4th edition in 1862.

Perkins, George R., Plane Trigonometry and its Application to Mensuration and Land Surveying, (New York, 1852).  This book has 153 pages of text plus 175 pages of mathematical tables.  Perkins was Principal and Professor at the New York State Normal School and this work focuses on the mathematics involved in dividing land and calculating area.  It describes the process of chaining and includes a description of the surveyors compass and rudimentary cross.  It mentions a theodolite but not the transit instrument.  The theodolite is said to be too complicated for this level of text.

Hackley, Rev. Charles W., A Treatise on Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical, with its Applications to Navigation and Surveying, Nautical and Practical Astronomy and Geodesy, (New York, 1853), 372 pages of text and 129 pages of tables not sequentially numbered. This book is mostly one of mathematical content and the section on practical surveying includes only 31 pages with a superficial treatment of the subject.

Loomis, Elias, Elements of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, with their Applications to Mensuration, Surveying and Navigation, (New York, 1853, 1856) 178 pages. Loomis was a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at the University of New York and published other scientific works including astronomy. This treatise contains the rudiments of surveying and describes and illustrates all the instruments in common use. Numerous editions were published including as late as 1891. The earliest reported edition is 1848.

Pedder, James, The Farmer's Land-Measurer, or Pocket Companion; showing, at one view, the Content of any Piece of Land, (New York, 1854), 19 pages of text and 124 pages of tables. This work offers very little other than simple area computation but was periodically reprinted as late as 1920. The first edition was reportedly published in New York in 1842.

Beans, E.W., A Manual for Practical Surveyors, Containing Methods Indispensably Necessary for Actual Field Observations, (Philadelphia, 1854), 108 pages. This is a small book but includes much in the way of practical techniques for field work.

Duncan, Andrew, The Practical Surveyor's Guide, Containing the Necessary Information to Make any Person of Common Capacity, A Finished Land Surveyor, Without the Aid of a Teacher, (Philadelphia, 1854), 122 pages. Like the Beans manual, this is small in size but contains valuable information for guiding a surveyor in field work. It gained in popularity and was published well into the 20th century.

U.S. General Land Office, Instructions to the Surveyors General of Public Lands of the United States, for those Surveying Districts Established in and Since the Year 1850; Containing, Also, A Manual of Instructions to Regulate the Field Operations of Deputy Surveyors, (Washington, 1855), 56 pages and 3 folding plates. This is the first of the general instructions following similar works intended for use in individual surveying districts. Revised editions were printed in 1881, 1890, 1894, 1902, 1919 (Advance Sheets), 1930, 1947 and 1973. Some of the editions were reprinted at different dates. Supplemental instructions were also published from time to time.

Smyth, William, Elements of Plane Trigonometry, Surveying and Navigation, (Boston and Portland, 1855), 216 pages and 4 folding plates. This book covers the basic surveying operations and includes descriptions of the compass, level, theodolite, plain table, chain, and has a section on triangulation.  An enlarged edition with 272 pages of text plus 81 pages of mathematical tables was published in 1856. Included in the new material is treatment of the surveyor's transit. The illustrations formerly on folding plates are now inserted within the text. These changes measurably boosted the value of this work to surveyors.

Gillespie, W.M., A Treatise on Land-Surveying: Comprising the Theory Developed from Five Elementary Principles; and the Practice with the Chain Alone, the Compass, the Transit, the Theodolite, the Plane Table, &c. Illustrated by Four Hundred Engravings, and a Magnetic Chart, (New York, 1855), 424 pages of text and 40 pages of tables. This is one of the best of the 19th century texts and elevated training of surveyors to a higher plateau. It gained considerable popularity and was published into the 20th century with the later editions being enlarged by Cady Staley.  The work became so voluminous that it was at times published in 2 volumes, the second being Higher Surveying.

Alsop, Samuel, A Treatise on Surveying; in Which the Theory and Practice are Fully Explained, (Philadelphia, 1857), 331 pages of text and 100 pages of tables. This is another fine text of the mid-19th century. It contains an excellent treatment of both instruments and procedures. It was short-lived and disappeared from the scene in later years.

Alsop, Samuel, Key to a Treatise on Surveying, (Philadelphia, 1857), 98 pages with diagrams.  This work contains numerous worked examples to problems found in Alsop's Surveying.

Burt, William A., A Key to the Solar Compass, and Surveyor's Companion; comprising All the Rules necessary for Use in the Field., (Philadelphia, 1858), 126 pages of which 84 are text and 42 are tables. This is an important work regarding public lands surveying as well as operation of the solar compass that was invented by Burt. His first work on that instrument was Description of the Solar Compass, together with Directions for its Adjustment and Use, (Detroit, 1844). Several editions of the more complete work were published, even into the 20th century.

Grumman, J.M., A Short Treatise on Surveyors' Chains & Chain Measuring with the Subject of Measurements Generally, in the City and Country, 2nd ed., (Brooklyn, 1859, 1860), 24 pages. This brief work discusses measuring with the Grumman patent chain.

U.S. Coast Survey, General Instructions in Regard to the Hydrographic Work of the Coast Survey, undated ,c. 1860, 28 pages. This paper was separately published and not included as an appendix to the Superintendent's Report.  Other hydrographic instructions were published in 1878, 1883, and 1894.

Root, Oren, A New Treatise on Surveying and Navigation Theoretical and Practical: with Use of Instruments, Essential Elements of Trigonometry, and the Necessary Tables, for Schools, Colleges, and Practical Surveyors, (New York, 1863, 1864), 398 pages of text plus 123 pages of tables. This is a nice basic text although for this period is a little light in its treatment of instruments. This work underwent several reprints and revisions to as late as 1891.

Bradbury, William F., The Elements of Plane Trigonometry, and Their Application to the Measurement of Heights and Distances, Surveying of Land, and Levelling. Particularly Adapted to the Use of High Schools and Academies, (Boston, 1864), 130 pages of text and 174 pages of tables. The author presents here an elementary work that can be used at the high school level. The book was reprinted in 1892

Harrison, A.M., Assistant, On the Plane-Table and its use in Topographical Mapping, (Washington, 1867). This work is Appendix No. 22 and comprises pages 203 to 231 of the Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey Showing the Progress of the Survey During the Year 1865. There are 3 folding plates accompanying this work. The Coast Survey played a leading role in mapping the coasts of America and this work was the guide used by their topographers.  The Harrison report was also copied and privately published in 1869 by D. Van Nostrand, New York.  This private reprinting of the Harrison continued with changed plates until at least 1884.

Schuyler, A., Surveying and Navigation, with a Preliminary Treatise on Trigonometry and Mensuration, (Cincinnati & New York, 1864, 1873), 403 pages of text and 87 pages of tables. This book is of the same nature as Robinson and Root although going into much greater detail in its treatment of instruments, including the solar compass.

Hawes, J.H., System of Rectangular Surveying Employed in Subdividing the Public Lands of the United States; also Instructions for Subdividing Sections and restoring Lost Corners of the Public Lands; Constituting a Complete Text-Book of Government Surveying, (Philadelphia, 1868), 234 pages of text. Hawes was Late Principal Clerk of Surveys in the General Land Office and this book deals exclusively with that subject. The author enunciates on how the work is to be carried out based upon office policy and his interpretations of federal law. This was a popular book that was reprinted for several years.

Smeaton, A. C., The Builder's Pocket companion; containing the elements of Building, Surveying, and Architecture.  With Practical Rules and Instructions connected with the subject, (Philadelphia, 1869).  The book has 273 pages plus a catalogue of other books in the back.

Jeffers, William N., Nautical Surveying, (New York, 1871), 292 pages with 9 plates and 31 figures.  A very comprehensive treatment of performing coastal and offshore surveys including elements of plane and geodetic triangulation, hydrography, astronomy, leveling, baseline measure, tide measuring and projection of charts and plans.

Hearding, W.H., Practical Notes on Hydrographic & Mining Surveys, With Illustrations, (Milwaukee, 1872), 54 pages plus a fold-out chart. This discusses methods of surveying harbors and mines with no treatment of instruments.

Murray, David, Manual of Land Surveying with Tables, (New York, 1872), 154 pages of text and 105 pages of tables. This is a good basic text and includes steel engravings of Gurley instruments including a rare variety of solar compass.

Clevenger, Shobal V., A Treatise on the Method of Government Surveying as Prescribed by the United States Congress, and Commissioner of the General Land Office. With Complete Mathematical, Astronomical and Practical Instructions, for the use of United States Surveyors in the Field, and Students who Contemplate Engaging in the Business of Public Land Surveying, (New York, 1874), 78 pages of text and 122 pages of tables. Clevenger was a U.S. Deputy Surveyor and offered this to clarify and answer some of the issues confronted by others in this work. It was reprinted and enlarged in later years.

Trautwine, John C., The Field Practice of Laying Out Circular Curves for Railroads, (Philadelphia, 1873, 1874), 108 pages. This popular work was enlarged and reprinted a number of times with the 11th edition being published in 1882.

Rodgers, Harrington, Anmen, Howell and Perkins, Textbook on Surveying, Projections, and Portable Instruments, for the use of Cadet Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, (New York, 1876), 147 pages and 9 plates. The plates in this book include a number of steel engravings of geodetic instruments that are quite nice. The book is very comprehensive and offers detailed information on hydrographic surveying.

U.S. Coast Survey, General Instructions in Regard to Inshore Hydrographic Work of the Coast Survey, (Washington, 1878), 50 pages and 4 plates. This paperback work was separately printed by the Coast Survey and was not included as an appendix to the Superintendent's Report.

McDermott, Michael, The Civil-Engineer & Surveyor's Manual: Comprising Surveying, Engineering, Practical Astronomy, Geodetical Jurisprudence, Analysis of Minerals, Soils, Grains, Vegetables, Valuation of Lands, Buildings, Permanent Structures, Etc., (Chicago, 1879), 524 pages and 16 plates. This work has a basic treatment of surveying but includes interesting legal decisions dealing with boundaries including those along water. McDermott states that he spent 45 years calculating the one-minute traverse tables to 4 decimals, the first ever published.

Wentworth, G.A., Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Surveying and Tables, (Boston, 1882, 1891), 248 pages of text plus tables. This book combines two separate publications, trigonometry and surveying. A 2nd revised edition without the trigonometry portion was also published showing several copyright dates as late as 1903. This treatment of surveying is somewhat limited.

Hergesheimer, E., A Treatise on the Plane Table and its use in Topograhical Surveying, being Appendix No. 13 of the Report of the Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Showing the Progress of the Work during the Fiscal Year ending June 1880, (Washington, 1882), 28 pages with 1 plate and 12 diagrams, noting that this document was probably also published separately for the convenience of field surveyors.

Haupt, Lewis M., The Topographer, His Instruments and Methods. Designed for the Use of Students, Amateur Topographers, Surveyors, Engineers, and all Persons Interested in the Location and Construction of Works based upon Topography, (New York, Philadelphia & London, 1883), 184 pages and numerous folding plates. This work is attractively bound with an illustrated cover and the content is substantial. A second edition was published in 1891.

Specht, Geo. J., Prof. A. S. Hardy, John B. McMaster, and Henry F. Walling; Topographical Surveying, (New York, 1884), 210 pages, comprising separate essays written by the co-authors.  Specht wrote Topographical Surveying, Hardy wrote New Methods in Topographical Surveying, and McMaster wrote Geometry of Position Applied to Surveying, and Walling wrote Coordinate Surveying.  The essays were originally published separately in Engineering Magazine.

Penman, William, Land Surveying on the Meridian and Perpendicular System, (London and New York, 1885), 133 pages and 1 folding plate. This book adopts the procedures of trigonometrical surveys as practiced in the Colonies. The author is very meticulous, even to the extent of measuring to the center of a chaining pin.

Johnson, J.B., A Manual of the Theory and Practice of Topographical Surveying by Means of the Transit and Stadia; including Secondary Base-Line and Triangulation Measurements, and the Projection of Maps; Accompanied by Reduction Tables and Diagrams, Plates of Map-Lettering and Topographical Signs, (New York, 1885), 111 pages with 3 plates, 10 cuts in text. This was a precursor to Johnson's larger and more comprehensive surveying textbook that was published the following year.

Dorr, B.F., The Surveyor's Guide and Pocket Table-Book, (New York, 1886), with 59 pages of text and 52 pages of tables. This work focuses on rules of public land surveys and corresponded with the General Land Office for their concurrence.

Johnson, J.B., The Theory and Practice of Surveying. Designed for the use of Surveyors and Engineers Generally, but Especially for the use of Students in Engineering, (New York, 1886), with 621 pages of text and 62 pages of tables. This was a major instructional text for the period and was reprinted and used into the 20th century. The 17th edition dated 1914 was rewritten by Leonard S. Smith.

Holloway, Thomas; Levelling and its General Application, (1886), with a second revised edition, (London & New York, 1895).  The second edition has 147 pages together with a 4-page Catalogue of Surveying Instruments made by W. F. Stanley with prices at the rear.  This book offers a good treatment of theory and practice of leveling work including river crossings and other obstacles.  A third edition appeared in 1914.

Carhart, Daniel, A Treatise on Plane Surveying, (Boston, 1887), with 411 pages of text and 87 pages of tables. This work contains a good comprehensive treatment of the subject with nice instrument engravings..

Bellows, C.F.R. and Hodgman, F., A Manual of Land Surveying comprising an Elementary Course of Practice with Instruments and a Treatise upon the Survey of the Public and Private Lands, prepared for use of Schools and Surveyors, 3rd ed., (Kalamazoo, MI, 1888), with 408 pages of text and 106 pages of tables. This is an excellent work on the rules and guidelines for conducting surveys of government public lands.

Reed, Lieut. Henry A., Photography Applied to Surveying, (New York, 1888), 65 pages plus 1 folding plate. This book includes treatment of the photographic plane table and balloon photography with some nice illustrations.

Searles, William H., Field Engineering, A Hand-Book of the Theory and Practice of Railway Surveying, Location, and Construction, Designed for the Class-Room, Field, and Office, 10th ed., (New York, 1880, 1888), with 503 pages. This is a classic on the subject and was continually reprinted for many years..

Bagot, Thomas, A Manual of Plane Surveying; Confined to Work with the Compass, (Indianapolis, 1881, 1889), with 153 pages of text and 11 pages of tables. This work attempts to offer basic techniques for compass surveying.

Hodgman, F., A Manual of Land Surveying comprising An Elementary Course of Practice with Instruments and a Treatise upon the Survey of Public and Private Lands, prepared for use of Schools and Surveyors, (Climax, MI, 1891, 1903), 394 pages of text and 112 pages of tables and instructions for their use. This follows very closely the format of the treatise that Hodgman published jointly with C.F.R. Bellows. It was one of the principle reference books dealing with retracing boundaries of former public lands subdivisions.

Phelps, Harry, Practical Marine Surveying, (New York and London, 1889), 217 pages. This contains several nice instrument engravings and includes triangulation and shoreline topography. Phelps was an instructor at the Naval Academy. The book was reprinted without change to at least 1907

Winslow, Arthur, Stadia Surveying. The Theory of Stadia Measurements, (New York, 1892), 46 pages of text and 102 pages of tables. This work was prepared as a result of the rapid extension of the practice of stadia measurements. It includes tables for the reduction of observations.

Baker, Ira O., Engineer's Surveying Instruments, Their Construction, Adjustment, and Use, 2nd ed., (New York, 1892), 391 pages, a nice work about using instruments.

Gannett, Henry, A Manual of Topographic Methods, (Washington, 1893), 130 pages of text and 170 pages of tables. This is the first of a number of U.S. Geological Survey publications dealing with procedures for topographic surveying. It is illustrated with 18 plates and 14 figures.

Frost, Geo. H., Engineer's Field Book, To Which are Added Seven Chapters on Railroad Location and Construction, 4th ed., (New York, 1893), 166 pages. This little book contains information relating to railroad surveying and other work..

Gannett, Henry, A Manual of Topographic Methods, (Washington, 1890, 300 pages. This is also identified as Volume XXII of Monographs of the United States Geological Survey. It is a folio-sized book that describes the methods of field and office work to be followed for the U.S. Geological Survey. A subsequent edition appeared in 1906.

Pitcher, James, Outlines of Surveying and Navigation, for Public Schools and Private Study, (Syracuse, 1893), 87 pages of text and a 34-page supplement containing Washington's Farewell Address. This is a simple work for beginners in surveying.

Crandall, C.L., The Transition Curve by Offsets and by Deflection Angles, (New York, 1893), 38 pages of text and 26 pages of tables. A useful and handy pocket-sized booklet for the railroad surveyor.

Reed, Henry A., Topographical Drawing and Sketching, (New York, 1893), published as two volumes in one with Reed's 1888 work Photography Applied to Surveying, the two jointly comprising 210 pages with numerous illustrated fold-out plates.

Higgins, J.S., Subdivisions of the Public Lands, Described and Illustrated, with Diagrams and Maps. Given in Two Parts, (St. Louis, 1894), 84 plus 150 pages of text. This work treats both original and retracement surveys.

Cory, Tom, Manual of the System of Rectangular Land Partitions Employed in Subdividing the Public Lands of the U.S., 2nd ed., (Lafayette, IN, c. 1896), 32 pages. This is a pocket-size work that presents a superficial treatment of the subject.

Root, Edwin A., Root's Military Topography and Sketching prepared for use in the United States Infantry and Cavalry School, 4th ed., (Kansas City, 1896, 1902), 379 pages of text and about 46 pages of tables. This is a well-illustrated comprehensive treatment of the subject

Raymond, William G., A Text-Book of Plane Surveying, (New York, 1896), 495 pages of which 124 are tables. Raymond was a respected professor at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and this is a well written textbook. A second edition was published in 1914.

U.S. General Land Office, Manual of Instructions for the Survey of the Mineral Lands of the United States, (Washington, 1897), 84 pages and 1 folding plate. This little work treats the survey of government mineral lands for patent. There was also a 1909 edition with 94 pages and 2 folding plates.

International Textbook Company, A Treatise on Metal Mining, Prepared for Students of the International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, PA, Volume I, (Scranton, 1899), approximately 200 pages. This is a nice work on the basics of mining surveying and includes separate books on mathematics plus many worked examples.

Wainwright, D. B., A Plane Table Manual, being Appendix 8 of the Report of the Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Showing the Progress of the Work from July 1, 1897 to June 30, 1898, (Washington, 1899), 52 pages with 1 figure, 20 plates and 11 diagrams, noting this document was probably also published separately for the convenience of field surveyors.  A second edition of the manual was published in 1905 as Appendix 22 of that year's annual report.  It had 28 pages with 3 sketches and 5 figures.  It also was published separately.


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